1) Unlike mainland China, the Japanese, although ruthless in beating down opposition to colonial rule, had built an efficient civil service,
Efficient civil service.
2) decent infrastructure
3) and education,
4) and the beginnings of a strong national industry.
5) Throw in the much greater ease of managing an island without having to juggle regional warlords who only obeyed central government when it suited them,
No regional warlords.
6) as well as substantial US/Japanese aid post-war,
Substantial US aid.
7) and you have the tiger economy that still largely exists on Taiwan.
So, what does Afghanistan have going for it?
(my comments in italics)